Using the Harley Lyrics in the Inner-City Classroom

Using the Harley Lyrics in the Inner-City Classroom

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Stephanie Andrews

Kenmore-Garfield High School, Akron, Ohio

 

          In order to introduce the lives of medieval people into my teaching of the Middle Ages for students in high school grades 11–12, I have adopted some lyrics from MS Harley 2253.My observation of the Akron Public School system in Ohio has shown me that much of what high school students read about medieval culture is derived from selections of Malory’s King Arthur’s Death and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (the “General Prologue” in particular). These works tend to offer a limited view of what life was like for people of the time period. However, certain lyrics in MS Harley 2253 may serve to broaden students’ understanding of medieval culture.

          I present here a full teaching unit that focuses on the potential of three lyrics from MS Harley 2253 to induce students to grapple with cultural assumptions, political opinions, and gender roles in the Middle Ages. I will implement a focus on the three areas of “culture,” “politics,” and “gender” to represent the three foundations of our study. I find these focal points to be a universal and timeless key to understanding one’s self.

 

Teaching Environment

            The inner-city Kenmore-Garfield High School in the Akron Public School District is a Title 1 school, which means that 100% of its students are economically disadvantaged. Our diverse student body consists of 58% black non-Hispanic students; 39% are white, non-Hispanic; 3% are multi-racial. In addition, 30% of Kenmore students have diagnosed disabilities. We suffer an absentee rate of 30.4%, and only 76.6% of our students graduate in four years. I believe that the biggest deficit of my high school is a lack of parental support for students. Only about 5–10% of parents attend parent-teacher conferences, or provide any kind of supplemental materials, help, or guidance.

            A positive element of this inner-city school is the dedication that teachers, administrators, and board members have. We have received an overwhelming amount of material support in grants and Title 1 funding for supplies, tablets, smart boards, and projectors. I started teaching with only an overhead projector and chalkboard, and now my room is flourishing with technology. We have to make sure to use the technology to provide students with the tools they need to access texts they would not normally get to read (such as items from the TEAMS edition of The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript); to learn word processing skills; and to learn how to publish correctly by uploading assignments online, via a school-led portal.

 

Resources

I have chosen the following specific texts to be examined because I believe they clearly focus solely on the three areas of “culture,” “politics,” and “gender.” I believe learning more about these three areas can guide students into effective adults within society.

Specific texts examined are:

  1. Harley 2253’s On the Follies of Fashion, focuses on culture:
  2. “Lord that lenest us lyf.” Fein, Article 25a2
  3. Galloway, Andrew. Medieval Literature and Culture. New York: Continuum Books, 2006.
  4. Gurevich, Aron. Medieval Popular Culture. Trans. Janos M. Bak and Paul A. Hollingsworth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  5. Herlihy, David, ed. Medieval Culture and Society. New York: Walker, 1968.
  6. Scott, Margaret. Medieval Dress and Fashion. London: The British Library, 2007.
  7. Muscatine, Charles. Medieval Literature, Style, and Culture. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.
  8. Harley 2253’s Song of the Husbandman, focuses on politics:
    1. “Ich herde men upo mold.” Fein, Article 31.3
    2. Delany, Sheila. Medieval Literary Politics: Shapes of Ideology. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
    3. Krug, Ilana. “Complaint Literature: The Voice of the People, or Literary Formulae?” Medieval Perspectives (2012): 125–36.
  9. Harley 2253’s “The Life of Saint Marina,” focuses on gender:
    1. “Herketh hideward ant beoth stille.” Fein, Article 32.4
    2. Brubaker, Leslie, and Julia M. H. Smith. Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West 300-900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    3. Sauer, Michelle E. Gender in Medieval Culture. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015.
    4. Normington, Katie. Gender and Medieval Drama. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2004.
    5. Hourani, Guita G. “The Vita of Saint Marina in the Maronite Tradition.” Future (2009). (1 May 2017)
      http://maronite-institute.org/MARI/JMS/january00/Saint_Marina_the_Monk.htm
    6. Geoffrey Chaucer’s “Wife of Bath’s Tale” and “General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales” focus on applying all three topics together (culture, politics, and gender) Chaucer, Geoffrey. “The Wife of Bath,” “The General Prologue” Collections. USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015.

Other Teaching Materials

This unit contains the four texts, each following a very similar set-up in terms of lesson planning. Each lesson builds on the previous one, scaffolding student writing, so that students can produce a final essay. I have included here an example of one lesson plan, detailing how to teach the first text, On the Follies of Fashion.

 Lesson Plan.

On the Follies of Fashion – Culture

Unit Goal(s)

Students will . . . 

●      Learn the culture of the medieval era through reading Harley 2253’s On the Follies of Fashion in vol. 2, p. 108.

●      Analyze how a text can fit into a time period of history.

●      Learn how to comprehend underlying information by looking at a text figuratively, symbolically, metaphorically, etc.

●      Complete a formal essay showing their understanding of how culture was portrayed in the Harley 2253 text, Fein edition, in addition to another published text (Teacher or student choice – see Resources for suggestions.)

●      Implement unit vocabulary terms within class activities and essay.

●      Work with partners to improve writing.

Standard(s)

RL.11-12.1

RL.11-12.3

RL.11-12.4

RL.11-12.10

RI.11-12.1

RI.11-12.6

RI.11-12.10

W.11-12.1

W.11-12.4

W.11-12.5

W.11-12.6

W.11-12.7

W.11-12.9

W.11-12.10

SL.11-12.1

SL.11-12.1a

SL.11-12.4

L.11-12.1

L.11-12.2

L.11-12.6

Grade Level

11-12; 52 minute periods

 

Procedures – Day 1

Activity

Description

Time

Bell Work

Students will define “culture” in their own words and explain how they came to their conclusions.

5

Procedure 1

Students will discuss their bell work answers, leading up to a whole-class decision on what culture is in all forms. We will write our definition on a “Medieval Culture” poster to be hung in the classroom and refer to it as we read. Next, as a whole-class, we will discuss how culture is indicated through fashion. We will look into our own lives and discuss what kind of role fashion plays for ourselves and for others in school, and even in terms of the nation and world.

10

Procedure 2

Students will receive the text On the Follies of Fashion. Our general practice in reading poetry, is to read it three times before answering any kind of questions about it. First, the students read it silently to themselves. Second, the teacher reads it aloud. Third, we listen to the text from an online recording, or else each student reads it to a partner, taking turns.

15

Procedure 3

In a teacher-led formal discussion students will discuss this lyric in terms of culture, allowing students to build on ideas and express their own clearly. They are encouraged to analyze the lyric and synthesize each others’ comments and claims.

Optional: Students answer basic comprehension questions based on the poem to show their understanding of the message.

20

Closing

Preparation for tomorrow: quiz on the information students have learned about medieval culture. Students will write a short paragraph on how the lyric portrays culture.

2

 

Procedures – Day 2

Activity

Description

Time

Bell Work

Short quiz on culture – what the term means (denotation and connotation) and what it could represent.

5

Procedure 1

Review of yesterday’s poem: volunteers summarize the lyric’s message and how it is connected to medieval culture.

5

Procedure 2

Students work with partners to construct a list of the elements from the text that portray/promote aspects of medieval culture. Using notes from earlier in the unit, students consider that information might be applied toward this text specifically. Each student will create with his/her best answer, put it on a sticky-note, and place it on our  blank “Medieval Culture” poster at the front of the classroom.

20

Procedure 3

Students discuss similarities and differences among answers. They choose as a class the top three elements of the poem that portrays its “culture.”

10

Procedure 4

Timed writing activity: students write a reflective paragraph on the medieval lyric and how it portrays culture. They must correctly cite at least two examples to support their reasoning.

10

Closing

Preparation for tomorrow: students will edit their paragraphs and read more information about medieval culture to add to their paragraph, turning it into an extended response essay.

2

 

Procedures – Day 3

Activity

Description

Time

Bell Work

Students receive back the paragraph that they completed yesterday. They switch papers with a partner and speed-edit for two minutes. (Students are already aware of this technique, in which they look for focus areas: GPS [Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling]).

5

Procedure 1

Students receive an excerpt from a secondary text about the culture of the medieval time period (Teacher or student choice – see Resources for suggestions). They are to read this excerpt and highlight passages that support information in their own paragraph.

20

Procedure 2

Students rewrite their paragraph as an extended response, argumentative essay of over ten sentences to include information from the secondary excerpt. They must include two more citations, at least. This revised essay must be typed and submitted in Google classroom.

Student grades will be based on:

1. Research findings and 4 citations (parenthetical documentation);

2. Organization and format;

3. Conventions of English;
4. Use of medieval vocabulary words.

25

Closing

Preparation for tomorrow: The students will work on the next Harley 2253 lyric, The Song of the Husbandman.

2

 

Process

I want students to apply themselves in an individually-led whole unit that utilizes items from MS Harley 2253, in order to eventually develop self-driven essays demonstrating students’ comprehension of aspects of culture, politics, and gender attitudes during the Middle Ages. For this purpose, I lead into my process with the following excerpt about each Harley lyric from Susanna Fein’s introduction in The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript, Volume 2:

  1. On the Follies of Fashion (culture). “This satire on women’s dress is first and foremost a comic piece that defuses the tension brought on by the preceding item on the execution of Scottish traitors—a piece that had dramatically raised an audience’s disquieting fear of border wars and rebellions. In juxtaposition to that poem, this one delivers a funny vernacular satire, a tour de force of alliterative humor on the trivial subject of how foolish English girls aspire to affect the French fashions of Anglo-Norman noblewomen.” 5
  2. Song of the Husbandman. “Set amid love lyrics, this item of English peasant complaint is usually labeled historical or political, and then occluded from consideration with the lyrics that occur near it in quire 7. However, its tones of discontent and thwarted desire complement the immediate context (Fein 2000c, pp. 357–58, 368). Generically, Song of the Husbandman belongs with a distinctive set of Harley poems in English alliterative verse that lodge protest by means of earthy vernacular idiom. These poems tend to be vivid monologues (e.g., arts. 25a, 40, 81, 88). Here, the anonymous poet gives voice to English farmers who find themselves impoverished and victimized by oppressive taxation and extortion. As in Satire on the Consistory Courts (art. 40), illiteracy is wielded as a weapon against the speaker. Of the tax collector’s hated bill, which the husbandman cannot read, Scattergood observes that those ‘who collected the king’s taxes were exploiting their literacy and the illiteracy of the peasantry by not entering records for payment, appropriating what was paid for their own use, and demanding the money all over again on the strength of the “writ”’ (2000b, p. 41). What illiterate farmers could read all too well was the fearsome sign of green wax sealing the document (Green 1999, p. 200).” 6 
  3. The Life of Saint Marina (gender). “The Life of Saint Marina is a curious tale that mixes the genre of holy saint’s life with profane comedy. The main plot follows the life of a female saint (Marina), who is cross-dressed as a man in order to pass as a monk (Marin). The switch is made by her father, a widower turned monk, when Marina is a mere child, leaving her wholly innocent of the ruse, which takes place in a monastery—a celibate setting that at its spiritual ideal ought to be unconcerned with gender. But this is a tale obsessed with sexual difference, its focus fixed on Marin/a’s hidden gender under clothes, an interest similarly found in many of the surrounding love lyrics (Fein 2000c). As a young monk, Marina is accused of rape by a dairyman’s daughter, in actuality made pregnant by a passing knight. Marina proves her sanctity by accepting a harsh penance for this sin that she cannot possibly have committed, the nature of which she has no knowledge of. Ultimately, she dies of this unwarranted penance. At her death, the full truth is revealed by a miracle that is both sublime and comic: the monks gaze, awestruck, at Marina’s naked body.”7

In preparation, teachers should front-load students with a general history of the English Middle Ages, and then introduce them to what culture, politics, and gender could mean for medieval people. This topic will lead to a very fluid, discussion which is best determined by individual teachers and their sets of students. I believe that each student should develop his/her own working definition of culture, politics, and gender in order to develop an understanding of the medieval time period, as evident from their readings as discussions. However, these definitions should not bind students to beliefs one way or another. The English teacher, and quite possibly in connection with a Social Studies teacher, could start by stressing definitions as:

  • Culture: The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.
  • Politics: The activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
  • Gender: The role or behavior learned by a person as appropriate to one’s gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms.

Next, students will read the three lyrics, summarize them, and then work to compare and contrast ideas and topics found within them. Students will write three formal mini-essays (Length is discretionary, but I suggest 5-10 sentences) that present their conclusions about each lyric. The class then proceeds to a reading of Chaucer’s Wife of Bath’s Tale. The reading could be based on skill-level of the class; however, I use a modernized translation which is already in our District approved textbook. By the end, students will have written a college-level, MLA-style paper that shows how all three aspects of the Middle Ages (culture, politics, and gender) may be applied to all four readings. The final paper will be graded based on college requirements of following MLA formatting, including in-text citations and a bibliography.

My lesson plans for unit as a whole maps out a step-by-step directive for high school teachers. The unit has six sections:

  1. General History of the Medieval Era (the entire era of 1,000 years (500-1500); the High Middle Ages (12th-14th centuries); The Middle Ages in England in the 13th – 14th centuries)
  2. Harley 2253’s On the Follies of Fashion, focusing on culture
  3. Harley 2253’s Song of the Husbandman, focusing on politics
  4. Harley 2253’s The Life of Saint Marina, focusing on gender
  5. Geoffrey Chaucer’s Wife of Bath’s Tale and General Prologue
  6. Final Formal Essay

Each section has students work mostly independently to express how the three Harley 2253 texts represent culture, politics, and gender, respectively. After successfully reading the Harley Lyrics mentioned above, and creating mini-essays, the students will now create a final formal essay to include the information they have already written.  This final essay will serve as the basis for their summative assessment for the entire unit. The list of resources above guides students in their reading of MS Harley 2253 and its contents and includes informational texts that students may incorporate. The lesson plan also includes modifications for students with disabilities, as well as modifications for enrichment for those who are advanced or gifted. One example of how teachers could extend to the advanced student is to include the original Middle English texts for students to work together to decipher and analyze. Another example on how to differentiate is to collaborate with a Social Studies teacher to develop a cross-curricular approach. The unit is designed to be very project-based, so that students work both individually and together in developing ideas, revising written work, and assessing concepts prior to constructing their final essay.

 

Rationale for Process

Students will learn to read medieval lyrics that present a realistic view of the time period. While students should be able to recognize the Chaucerian exaggerations in his work, students should also discover how culture, politics, and gender operate in other, perhaps more mundane, literary contexts. I believe that the focus on the three areas of “culture,” “politics,” and “gender” represent universal aspects of study applicable to any text at any time in history. These focal points are also a key to understanding ourselves—which is especially important for young people in high school—and key to students becoming effective adults within society, which is required by understanding one’s own culture, politics, and gender definitions, whatever they may be.

 

Culminating Activity: Final Essay

To the Students: For your final assessment of this unit, you will complete a formal, six-paragraph MLA style paper. You will include the four-paragraph essays that you already wrote in class. You will demonstrate how each of the Harley 2253 lyrics portrayed culture, politics, and gender (respectively) during the medieval era. You will need to show your knowledge of history and include citations for each. Also, you will include Chaucer’s Wife of Bath’s Tale to connect this poem to all three focus areas of culture, politics, and gender.

The following information is a checklist of requirements for the research paper:

  • Take detailed notes on MLA format, and continuously go back to these as your work.
  • Complete an outline giving thought to organization.
  • Type a rough draft and always save it in your Google drive. Make sure to type an extensive introduction, copy and paste your previous essays as your body paragraphs, and end with a culminating and enthusiastic
  • Peer-edit rough drafts to look for any and all mistakes. Work positively with others to help each classmate and yourself, become the best writers you can be!
  • Revise rough draft into a perfectly written, formal final paper. You will submit your final paper to our assignment in Google Classroom.

Your final paper is worth a total of 150 POINTS and is due on: __________!

Rubric for Final Essay

 

CATEGORY

10

5

0

TOTAL:

1.

Title Page &

Page Header

Title Page done perfectly with items needed based on formatting guidelines.

“Running Head:” placed on title page with a short title in all capital letters aligned left. Also contains a page number aligned right.

Title page appears but incorrect.

Page header placed on title page, but incorrect. Page number may be attempted but wrong/missing.

No title page used.

No page header used.

 

 

 

 

 

2.

Formatting,

Double-spacing,

Correct margins

Entire paper is typed in Times New Roman, size 12, double spaced. 1 inch margins are used on all pages of the paper.

Parts are formatted correctly but inconsistently. Double spacing inconsistent. 1 inch margins inconsistent.

Incorrect font type/size. Paper is not double spaced. Margins incorrect .

 

3.

Section Headings

Section headings are used correctly and follow standard guidelines.

Section headings are attempted but incorrectly used.

Section headings are not used.

 

4.

Introduction

Hook is used. Topic is clearly presented in a strong thesis statement.

Hook missing.

Topic is not clearly stated in thesis statement.

No topic stated.

No thesis statement.

 

5.

 

6.

 

7.

 

8.

4 Body Paragraphs

(1 for each text)

Transitions are used to change between topics and ideas. Claims and supports are objectively stated. Each text is used as a topic for each body paragraph.

Transitions are used but incorrectly.

Claims and supports attempt to be objective, but unsuccessful. Not all texts are used. 

Transitions are not used. Claims and supports are not objective.

 

 

 

 

9.

 

10.

 

11.

 

12.

Citations using Parenthetical Documentation

(minimum of 4, one from each text)

Sources cited correctly using standard formatting guidelines for parenthetical documentation.

Uses the correct number of sources/types.

Cited source is attempted and cited using standard formatting guidelines for parenthetical documentation. Some inconsistencies found and generally unsuccessful.

No sources/citations are used.

 

 

 

 

13.

Conclusion  Paragraph

Conclusion is cohesive and summarizes information found to provide a strong close to the research, relating back to the thesis.

Conclusion is attempted to provide a cohesive/ summarizing close to the research but does not relate back to the thesis. 

Conclusion is missing and/or off topic. 

 

14.

Works Cited (Reference) Page

Reference page includes all sources cited in paper. Done perfectly using standard formatting guidelines.

Reference page includes some sources cited from paper. Inconsistent formatting.

No Reference page appears.

 

 

 

15.

English Conventions & Mechanics

No grammatical, capitalization, spelling or punctuation errors.

Some grammatical, capitalization, spelling, or punctuation errors.

So many errors, that it is detrimental to the writing.

 

COMMENTS:

 

 

/150

 


1 Susanna Fein, et al. The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript. Vol. 2 (Kalamazoo, MI, Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2014).

2 Fein, et. al, The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript, Article 25a. http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-25a.

3 The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript, Article 31.

http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-31.

The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript, Article 31.

http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-32.

5 Art. 25a. “Lord that lenest us lyf.” In The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript, Article 25a. http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-25a.

6 Art. 31. “Ich herde men upo mold.” In The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript.  http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-31.

7 (Art. 32. “Herketh hideward ant beoth stille.” In The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript.  http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-32.
 

Bibliography

Art. 25a, Lord that lenest us lyf. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Institute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-25a>

Art. 25a, Lord that lenest us lyf: Introduction. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Institute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-25a-introduction>.

Art. 31, Ich herde men upo mold. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Insittute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-31>.

Art. 31, Ich herde men upo mold: Introduction. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Institute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-31-introduction>.

Art. 32, Herketh hideward ant beoth stille. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Institute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-32>.

Art. 32, Herketh hideward ant beoth stille: Introduction. Ed. Susanna Greer Fein. 2014. Medieval Institute Publications. May 2017. <http://d.lib.rochester.edu/teams/text/fein-harley2253-volume-2-article-32-introduction>.

Brubaker, Leslie and Julia M. H. Smith, Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West 300-900. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Chaucer, Geoffery. “The Wife of Bath.” Collections. USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015.

Delany, Sheila. Medieval Literary Politics: Shapes of Ideology. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

Fein, Susanna, et al. The Complete Harley 2253 Manuscript. Vol. 2, Kalamazoo, MI, Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2014.

Galloway, Andrew. Medieval Literature and Culture. New York: Continuum Books, 2006.

Gurevich, Aron. Medieval Popular Culture. Trans. Janos M Bak and Paul A Hollingsworth. New York: University of Cambridge, 1988.

Herlihy, David, ed. Medieval Culture and Society. New York: Walker and Company, 1968.

Hourani, Guita G. “The Vita of Saint Marina in the Maronite Tradition.” Future (2009). 1 May 2017. <http://maronite-institute.org/MARI/JMS/january00/Saint_Marina_the_Monk.htm>.

Krug, Ilana. “Complaint Literature: The Voice of the People, or Literary Formulae?” Medieval Perspectives, 2012, pp. 125-136.

Muscatine, Charles. Medieval Literature, Style, and Culture. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.

Normington, Katie. Gender and Medieval Drama. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2004.

“Satire.” Literary Devices. Mar. 2017, https://literarydevices.net/satire/. Accessed 18 Mar. 2017.

Sauer, Michelle E. Gender in Medieval Culture. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2015.

Scott, Margaret. Medieval Dress and Fashion. London: The British Library, 2007.

 

 Appendix: Ohio State Standards

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.2
Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.3
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.5
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.6
Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.11-12.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.6
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.1.d: Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.a: Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting, graphics, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.b: Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.c: Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.d: Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.e: Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.2.f: Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.3.c: Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.8: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.9.a: Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literature.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.11-12.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1.a: Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1.b: Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1.d: Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.2: Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.5: Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.1.a: Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.1.b: Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references as needed.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.2.b: Spell correctly.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.11-12.6: Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word/phrase important to comprehension/expression.